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Walkers is a leading international law firm. We advise on the laws of Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Guernsey, Ireland and Jersey.
GlobalMap Oct2019
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Jersey Foundations - New Reporting Requirements

A significant change to the Foundations (Jersey) Law 2009 is expected to take effect on 1 December, requiring qualified members to file an abridged version of the foundation's regulations with the JFSC. Only certain details relating to the operation of the council and guardian are reportable and the new requirements expressly exclude any information that would allow any person to be identified. Details of a transitional period will be announced soon, but qualified members should consider taking advice on the new obligations in the meantime.

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Ireland | Reducing the Risks of Dismissal during Probation

The recent High Court decision in O’Donovan v Over-C Technology Ltd & Anor [2020] demonstrates that terminating an employee’s employment before the employee has accrued twelve months’ continuous service can still create significant risks for an employer.

Employers generally seek to conclude an employee’s probationary period (and any extension) before the employee has accrued twelve months’ continuous service. This is because, in most cases, an employee is prevented from bringing a claim under the Unfair Dismissals Acts, 1977 to 2015 unless they have accrued twelve months’ continuous service with their employer. However, there are a number of claims that an employee may take challenging their dismissal from commencement of employment, which are discussed below.

 

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Future Plans for Bermuda Public Beneficial Ownership Register

Bermuda has collected and maintained information concerning beneficial owners of Bermuda registered entities for over 70 years and the Bermuda Government committed to making beneficial ownership information public, when public beneficial ownership registers became a global, international standard. Further to a press statement on 12 July 2020, the Minister of Finance stated that the Bermuda Government plans to table legislation by January 2023, twelve months from the publication of the European Union fifth Anti-Money Laundering Directive anticipated on 5 January 2022, to make the beneficial ownership register currently maintained by the Bermuda Monetary Authority, accessible to the public.

 

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Ireland | PD3 – Practical Insights

Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 (the “New Prospectus Regulation” or “PD3”) has been in effect since 21 July 2019 and the purpose of this advisory is to provide some practical insights on the application of PD3 to date to issuers of debt securities and to share our experience of some of the issues which have arisen and how such issues may be resolved.

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A Cayman Islands Hedge Fund Review | Part 4: Distressed Situations

A review of Cayman Islands hedge fund corporate governance and best practice, including in times of distress

It may be business as usual for hedge funds as they seek to weather the market storm caused by Covid-19. However, the true economic effects are perhaps yet to be seen.

This five-part series considers some of the guiding principles that apply to corporate governance in a Cayman Islands hedge fund context and some of the best practices that boards of directors should be implementing as a matter of course, which may need to be re-visited and adapted in times of distress.

To access part 1, part 2 or part 3 please click herehere and/or here.

Part 4: Distressed Situations

If a fund becomes distressed and liquidity issues arise, an emergency meeting of the board of directors will almost certainly be required. While the constitutional documents of most modern funds permit ad hoc meetings at short notice and by telephone/video conference, the constitutional documents will still need to be checked to ensure any stipulated requirements relating to the holding of board meetings, e.g. the requirement for prior notice (including the ability to waive notice and any other formalities), are satisfied.

In addition, depending on the circumstances, the location of the directors may make attendance difficult (in light of current restrictions/limitations on travels), e.g. in the event the location of a director has adverse consequences on the fund from a non-Cayman legal/tax perspective. It will be important to engage relevant local (tax) counsel on this issue.

Assuming the board of directors is able to validly meet, at the outset of the meeting it will be essential for the board of directors to:

  1. manage conflicts of interest. For example, if a real (or ostensible) conflict arises, a director may wish to recuse themselves from relevant discussions and/or resolutions, or even step-down as a director to ensure the integrity of the board is not, in any way, compromised. In particular, if the investment manager is represented on the board of directors (which is typical), then conflicts as regards "their" director may quickly become apparent, e.g. in the context of discussions around NAV calculation/hard-to-value assets and fee terms. The directors have, amongst others, a duty to avoid conflicts of interest and a duty to act in what the director bona fide considers to be in the best interests of the fund. It is therefore imperative that any conflicts of interest are suitably identified, disclosed, monitored and managed. Any conflicts of interest should be noted in the board minutes (or documented in written resolutions);
  2. establish if the fund is insolvent or 'in the zone of insolvency', i.e. is the fund able to pay its debts as they fall due (including any crystallised redemption payments). This analysis will also include any debts which are prospective in nature[1]. This is because, where the fund is insolvent, the directors must have regard to the interests of the fund's creditors when discharging their duties to the fund, rather than (in a solvent situation) having regard to the interests of the fund. The fund's financial position needs to be verified by the board of directors undertaking a full assessment of the fund's financial position and consistently with the valuation of assets principles discussed above. Such cash flow assessment should be undertaken regularly by the fund to allow the board of directors to make appropriate decisions; and
  3. consider whether they have sufficient and relevant knowledge and experience to carry out their duties as directors in a distressed situation. It might be the case that the appointment of additional or replacement directors who specialise in distressed situations is appropriate.


Once these basic, but essential, issues have been addressed, the board of directors may then seek to manage liquidity in consultation with the investment manager. In doing so, it is strongly recommended that the board of directors consults with its legal counsel (and, in particular, insolvency and dispute resolution teams), as, amongst other matters, there can be significant personal implications on the directors. In particular, the law in this area often evolves quickly and there are restructuring tools available to funds in the Cayman Islands that can facilitate a restructuring of the fund whilst providing a 'safe harbour' for the directors and a stay on claims against the fund. However, it may be the case that certain discussions between the board of directors and legal counsel take place independently; that is, away from the investment manager, in light of the potential conflicts of interest that may arise in a distressed situation.

As ever, detailed minutes of all meetings, including the matters considered and decisions made, and the information requested from, and provided by, service providers and advisors, should then be prepared for the review and sign-off by the directors. Where permitted, a meeting accompanied by detailed written resolutions may be preferable. It is always possible that the resolutions of the board of directors could be scrutinised at a later date, and accurate record-keeping may assist the directors in demonstrating that they discharged their duties as directors.

About Walkers Professional Services
Walkers Professional Services is the leading provider of corporate, company secretarial, regulatory, compliance and fiduciary services to corporate and institutional clients across global financial centres.

Our Company Secretarial and Corporate Governance Services group has extensive experience in their respective fields and offers tailored services to help clients meet ever-changing legal and regulatory demands. Services include: Meeting Support Services, Shareholder Support Services, Global Company Secretarial Services, Action Point Maintenance, Economic Substance Solutions and Custom Data Room Solutions.


Part 5 - the final part - will consider relations with the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority and investors.



[1] There is no prescribed period within which directors need to assess prospective debts, but it is noteworthy that in order to give a declaration of solvency in relation to a company, directors are required to consider the company's ability to meet its debts in the coming 12 month period.

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